Sabtu, 01 November 2014

Take Home Test Material 02.11.2014 rip

To evaluate the physical quality of pelleted feeds, generally a subdivision is being made into tests that evaluate 'hardness' and tests evaluating 'durability' of a given pellet. The feed manufacturer or feed technologist should be aware of the reason for evaluating the pellet quality and subsequently choose the appropriate, most suitable method, since no unique test exists that covers all parameters of interest related to physical quality of pelleted animal feeds.

Please describe clearly, equippe with examples that appropriate with your explanation,
  1. Factors that influence the quality (nutritional and physical) of pellets
  2. Methods used to evaluate the quality of the pellet
The answers of both questions (using bahasa Indonesia) should be written with MS Office Word (arial narrow, font 12, sp 1,5) with the order as listed below :
  1. Title (name, NIM)
  2. Discussions 1
  3. Discussions 2
  4. Conclusions
  5. References 
It should be submitted in two week after this day (2nd November 2014) in soft copy to the email address of retno.marwoto@gmail.com after two times reviewed. 


noted: students are always welcome to contact me... *you all know how to contact me :)

Good luck ... !

Senin, 09 April 2012

Pellet Animation on Video

Untuk menambah wacana tentang proses pembuatan pellet, berikut animasi pelleting.
Semoga bermanfaat.

video

PLANT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR


The plant maintenance program is vital to consistent production of high quality feeds and no less important to cost control and assurance to the customer that their feed will arrive on time and to formula specification (Parr, 1988).
Equipment breakdowns are bad enough as they impede aquaculture feed production, but at least as bad is machinery which is not working to design which may, through short weighing, or improper mixing, produce a defective feed.
Such defective feed may, at the least, hurt the farmer’s production and at worst create a serious crop failure. Also possible is a threat to human health.
Keeping motors, scales, pellet dies, conveyors and all other components of the mill in proper working order is as important as formulation or the quality of ingredients which go into the finished feed.
Mechanical or electronic failures may occur from time to time in a complex system like a feed mill, but proper attention to preventive maintenance will minimize down time and the prospect of the customer receiving feed which is out of specification. The latter may cause a costly recall of feed or possibly compensation for damages to the customer’s crop, if the error is not found in a timely way (Appendix II).
A good preventive maintenance programme should provide adequate maintenance at reasonable cost (Appendix III).

Preventive Maintenance Objectives:
  • Reduce major repairs by correcting minor difficulties as soon as they are evident. This means listening to your operators who usually recognise before management that machinery is making a “funny noise” or other irregularity in performance of equipment. Do not punish employees who are trying to report a defect beyond their control.
  • Maintain equipment in a more productive state. Keep it clean; repair or replace lost or worn parts immediately. Follow the machinery manual recommendations.
  • Improve scheduling of repairs. Do not postpone needed repairs. Delaying repairs usually results in much more costly problems later on.
  • Maintain safety. Some parts as they become worn become dangerous, as in worn chain or belt drives. Staff are valuable and injuries are costly from the standpoint of lost time and training replacements, not to mention adverse impacts on employee morale.
  • Improved customer service. A well-maintained mill looks good to the customer and helps assure the customer that the feed is made correctly the first time.
  • Reduce overall operating costs. The miller of aquaculture feeds benefits from a well-maintained facility through reduced costs of operation and customer satisfaction.
  • Provide trained maintenance personnel. Training of maintenance staff should be a high priority with high-level management oversight. Too often maintenance is seen as the bottom of the ladder, when in reality the quality and training of staff for this important responsibility should be paramount.
Building and Grounds Maintenance:
  • The building grounds shall be adequately drained and maintained to be reasonably free from litter, waste, refuse, uncut weeds or grass, standing water and improperly stored equipment.
  • The buildings shall be maintained in a reasonably clean and orderly manner.
  • Adequate space, ventilation and lighting shall be maintained for the proper performance of all manufacturing, storing, labelling, quality assurance and maintenance aspects of aquaculture feed manufacturing.
Preventive Maintenance Areas:
  • In Appendix IV a checklist is provided to highlight generalised preventive maintenance functions, which are to be checked periodically. Each plant manager should take this guideline and revise it to conform to the actual conditions of his plant.
  • A log (record) book or computer record should be maintained on a daily basis. Careful attention should be paid to the equipment manufacturer’s suggested maintenance schedule(s).
  • Quality aquafeeds can only be made by knowledgeable and trained personnel.
  • Training is an on-going process mentioned in various sections above, and can be summarized as follows: General management should have formal training in feed technology, sufficient to assure the competent purchase and handling of quality ingredients, correct manufacture, storage and handling of finished feeds. In addition to assuring that the feed manufactured meets the intended specifications for the species to be fed, the manager must maintain documentation of the process sufficient to allow accurate tracing of the ingredient sourcing and manufacturing events of a finished feed. This will include a record of who received the feed, and any other pertinent details including medications.
  • Personnel should receive refresher training on a regular basis, or additional training on new equipment and/or processes to be employed. There will be a particular emphasis on regular safety meetings where employees will make known any safety problems (violations) in need of correction. A log or journal of safety meetings should be kept. Particular attention must be given to record keeping as it relates to animal health products; these should always be stored separately from other ingredients to avoid any possibility of cross contamination.
  • Procedures for training and refresher training, as well as plant organizational structure shall be sufficiently flexible as to allow immediate adaptations to changes in evolving aquafeed technology. Certification of management and staff may become essential for ingredient purchasing, process control, and quality assurance.
  • Every employee from top management on down should have a working knowledge of the mill and the various specialities required to produce a finished product. Cross training can be a particularly valuable means of problem solving and lead to greater flexibility in a feed mill.
  • Regular meetings to express customer satisfaction, evaluate procedures, introduce new technology, and problem solving, will assure effective communications up and down the chain of command (UKASTA, 1998, 2000).
  • Documentation is a prime necessity in quality assurance and traceability.
  • Its main purpose is to define the system of control required to reduce the risk of error. This must include defining and mastering the critical points in the manufacturing process and establishing and implementing the quality control plan.
  • It is also designed to ensure that personnel are instructed in the details of the necessary procedures and to permit investigation and tracing of defective products.
  • The system of documentation should be such that the history of each batch, blend, or run of product may be determined.
  • Documentation must be both adequate and systematic and relate both to the manufacturing process and to quality assurance.
  • All relevant documents including those referring to quality assurance or HACCP procedures, must be retained for an appropriate amount of time, or as required by local regulations.
  • An example of an existing Code of Practice and good procedure to follow is outlined in the UKASTA “Code of Practice for the Manufacture of Safe Compound Animal Feeding stuffs” (UKASTA, 1998, 2000) and the Draft Code of Practice for Good Animal Feeding (FAO, 1998; Appendix IV). 

Feed Machinery

A feed mill is a very large investment and new buyers can often be overwhelmed by the different types of machinery needed, the processes and uses of each these machinery/equipment, and the components and parts of these machinery/equipment.

This presentation showed some basic equipments of a feed mill. 
Hope it can be used to enrich student who join the lecture of Feed Industry.

Jumat, 06 April 2012

Proses Gelatinisasi


•Pati dalam jaringan tanaman mempunyai bentuk granula yang berbeda-beda. Dg 
mikroskop jenis pati dapat dibedakan karena mempunyai bentuk, ukuran, dan letak 
hilum yang unik.
•Bila pati mentah dimasukkan ke dalam air dingin, granula patinya akan menyerap air 
dan membengkak. Peningkatan volume granula pati yang terjadi di dalam air pada 
suhu  55 0C – 65 0C merupakan pembengkakan yang sesungguhnya, dan setelah
pembengkakan ini granula pati dapat kembali ke kondisi semula.
•Granula pati dapat dibuat membengkak luar biasa  dan bersifat tidak dapat kembali 
lagi pada kondisi semula. Perubahan tersebut dinamakan gelatinisasi.
video

Selasa, 01 November 2011

Pembuatan Silase

Peralatan yang Digunakan Untuk Membuat Silase
            Beberapa perlatan yang digunakan dalam  pembuatan silase ini adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Tempat silase (silo),  bisa  terbuat  dari  plastik  ukuran  besar  atau  bus  beton  diameter  80 – 100 cm dsb.
b. Alat pemotong, berupa pisau besar atau choper
c. Timbangan
d. Lak ban/ isolasi besar dan tali rafia/ tali karet (dari ban dalam bekas)

Adapun bahan-bahan yang dapat digunakan dalam  pembuatan silase adalah :
a. Hijauan pakan yang  dapat dibuat silase  adalah  berupa rumput, legume  dan hijauan jagung
b. Bahan pengawet/ tambahan/ pelengkap dapat  berupa bekatul, onggok  dan tetes

Prosedur pembuatan silase :
1.      Hijauan / rumput  (yang sudah dilayukan dengan kadar air + 65 %) dipotong-potong (5 -10 cm),
2.      Hijauan atau rumput ditimbang  dan dicampur dengan 5 % bahan pelengkap (bekatul/ tetes atau onggok) sampai homogen
3.      Dimasukkan dalam tempat (silo) dan dipadatkan dan  kemudian ditutup rapat, disimpan/ diperam dengan aman (tidak kena air dan jauh dari serangga)
 
Tahap pembuatan silase :
1) Tahap pengisian

· hijauan pakan dipotong-potong dilayukan

· Bahan/hijauan pakan dicampur dengan bahan pengawet / tambahan / pelengkap

· Masukkan ke dalam silo dipadatkan

2) Tahap penutupan

Bahan dalam pembuatan silase :
1)   Bahan dasar/pokok
·         Rumput potong
·         Rumput lapangan
·         Leguminosa
·         Campuran rumput dan leguminosa
·         Limbah pertanian
2)   Bahan tambahan/pelengkap
·         Penambahan asam mineral untuk menimbulkan millieu asam (larutan Cl, asam propionat, asam semut, dll)
·         Penambahan asam organik (gula tebu, molasse)
·         Penambahan asam laktat
·         Penambahan ubi-ubian (kentang, ketela pohon, dll)
Untuk membuat silase, harus diupayakan terbentuknya keadaan hampa udara (anaerob) dan suasana asam.
A)   Keadaan hampa udara, dpt dilakukan dengan :
·         Tempat yang tertutup rapat
·         Penimbunan hijauan pakan yang dipadatkan
·   Pemadatan yang baik  memperkecil kantong udara  dan hijauan pakan sebaiknya dipotong-2. Silo yang tidak rapat  menyebabkan  tumbuhnya jamur.
B)   Suasana asam. pH diupayakan turun menjadi ± 4. Penurunan pH dpt dilakukan secara langsung atau tidak langsung.
·         Langsung, dengan penambahan bahan kimia (Na-bisulfat, sulfur dioksida, asam klorida)
·        Tidak langsung, dengan penambahan bahan sumber karbohidrat : tetes (3%), dedak halus (5%), menir (3,5%), onggok (3%)

Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pembuatan silase :
1)   pH harus dipertahankan kurang dari 4,2 (pH lebih dari 4,8 ensilase gagal & terjadi peragian)
2)   Suhu optimum untuk bakteri asam laktat 25 - 35oC
3)   Lama pekerjaan tidak boleh lebih dari 3 hari
4)   Bahan silase harus ditumpuk rapi/dipadatkan

Penilaian hasil pembuatan silase secara organoleptis berdasarkan skor terhadap warna, bau, tekstur, ada/tidaknya jamur dan penggumpalan, serta pH.
Ciri-ciri silase yang baik :
1. Rasa dan bau asam
2. Warna hijau seperti daun direbus
3. Tekstur hijauan seperti bahan asal
4. Tidak berjamur, berlendir atau menggumpal
5. Secara kimiawi : banyak mengandung asam laktat, N amonia rendah (<10%), tidak mengandung asam butirat
6. pH rendah (4,2 - 4,8)

Secara organoleptis, silase dapat dievaluasi berdasarkan skor terhadap bau, warna, tekstur, ada/tidaknya jamur dan penggumpalan.  Adapun cara pembuatan skor dapat dilihat pada tabel di bawah ini.

Kriteria
Karakteristik
Skor
Bau dan rasa
·  sangat busuk & merangsang
·  sedang
·  asam
1 - 3
4 - 6
7 - 9
Tekstur
·  lembek
·  sedang
·  seperti hijauan segar
1 - 3
4 - 6
7 - 9
Warna
·  tanpa warna hijauan
·  hijau kecoklatan
·  hijau seperti daun direbus
1 - 3
4 - 6
7 - 9
Jamur
·  banyak
·  sedikit
·  tidak ada
1 - 3
4 - 6
7 - 9
Penggumpalan
·  Menyeluruh
·  tengah
·  tepi
1 - 3
4 - 6
7 - 9